# Use of formulas in surveys

The following Constants, Operators and Functions can be used in formulas of surveys.

## Standard Constants

The following Costants are available:

True

False

## PI

3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097...

## E

2.71828182845904523536028747135266249775724709369995957496...

## Arithmetic operators

The following arithmetic operators are available:

## -

The prefix minus operator, like in “-2”

## +

The prefix minus operator, like in “+2”

The infix minus operator, like in “5-2”

## +

The infix plus operator, like in “5+2”

## *

The multiplication operator

## /

The division operator

## ^

The power-of operator

## %

The modulo operator (remainder)

## ( )

Brackets e.g. (1+2)*3

## Boolean operators

The following boolean operators are available:

## =, ==

The equals operator

## !=, <>

The not equals operator

## !

The prefix not operator, like in !a

## >

The greater than operator

## >=

The greater equals operator

## <

The less than operator

## <=

The less equals operator

The and operator

The or operator

## Basic Functions

The following basic functions are available:

## ABS(value)

Absolute (non-negative) value

## AVERAGE(value, …)

Returns the average value of all parameters

## CEILING(value)

Rounds the given value an integer using the rounding mode CEILING

## COUNT(value, …)

Returns the number of the parameters. NULL values are not counted.

## FACT(base)

Calculates the factorial of a base value

## FLOOR(value)

Rounds the given value an integer using the rounding mode FLOOR

## IF(condition, resultIfTrue, resultIfFalse)

Conditional evaluation function. If condition is true, the resultIfTrue is returned, else the resultIfFalse value

## LOG(value)

The natural logarithm (base e) of a value

## LOG10(value)

The base 10 logarithm of a value

## MAX(value, …)

Returns the maximum value of all parameters

## MIN(value, …)

Returns the minimum value of all parameters

## NOT(value)

Boolean negation, implemented as a function

## RANDOM()

Produces a random value between 0 and 1

## ROUND(value, scale)

Rounds the given value to the specified scale, using the current rounding mode

## SQRT(value)

Square root function

## SUM(value, …)

Returns the sum of all parameters

## String Functions

The following string functions are available:

## STR_CONTAINS(string, substring)

Returns true, if the string contains the substring (case-insensitive)

## STR_LOWER(value)

Converts the given value to lower case

## STR_UPPER(value)

Converts the given value to upper case